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APA Style 7th Edition

MGH IHP's guide to APA Style 7th Edition

Getting Started

The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order by the first item in the reference which is generally the author. The entire list is double spaced (even within citations), and each citation uses a hanging indent so that the first line is flush with the left margin and any subsequent lines are indented. 

Journal Articles

Sample journal article citation in correct APA Style 7th edition.

Basic Format

Author, A. A., & Second, A. A. (Year). Title of the article: Subtitle of the article. Title of the Journal, vol(issue), page range.[insert article doi]


Glickman, L. B., Olsen, J., & Rowthorn, V. (2015). Measuring the cross-cultural adaptability of a graduate student team from a global immersion experience. Journal Of Cultural Diversity, 22(4), 148-154.

Example - Advanced Online Publication

Canon, C., Effoe, V., Shetty, V., & Shetty, A. K. (2016). Knowledge and attitudes towards human papillomavirus (HPV) among academic and community physicians in Mangalore, India. Journal of Cancer Education. Advance online publication.


Note: In APA 7, references should list 20 authors maximum, as opposed to 7 authors maximum in the 6th edition. For articles with 21 authors or more, use an ellipsis to substitute from author number 19 to the last author on the publication. 

Finding and Using Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a permanent address to an article or other electronic source that will continue to lead a reader to the source even if the source's web address has changed multiple times. For this reason, DOIs are the preferred retrieval information for APA sources whenever they are available.

APA Format for DOIs

  • All DOIs should have in front of the actual DOI. Reformat any DOIs that do not or have a different format to them.
  • DOIs can appear in plain text or as live links (see live link version below). 

Morey, C. C., Cong, Y., Zheng, Y., Price, M., & Morey, R. D. (2015). The color-sharing bonus: Roles of perceptual organization and attentive processes in visual working memory. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 3, 18–29. 

For works without DOIs, do NOT include a URL or database information in the reference. 


Finding DOIs

Most articles wil include the DOI with the citation information. If you can't find it there, go to Click on Search Metadata, and enter the title of the your article into the search box. If your article has a DOI, it will appear on the results page. Watch the video tutorial below or view the print tutorial.

Not every article will have a DOI. Only those articles from scholarly journals published from about the mid-1990's on.

Journal Articles Published Online

With more journal articles being published online, APA 7 has certain rules regarding how to reference articles without page numbers and articles published ahead of print. Read on to learn how to format these types of articles!

Article Numbers and eLocators

Journal articles can have article numbers or locators instead of page numbers. If this is the case, include the number prior to the DOI, as you would a page number. Prior to the article number or locator, add the word "Article."


Leslie, C. J., Hawkins, M., & Smith, D. L. (2020). Using the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) with providers in the Early Intervention setting: A qualitative testing study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), Article E2603.‚Äč

Advance Online Publications

If an article has been published online ahead of the print version, you can use the year it was published online, and then add the phrase "Advance online publication" prior to the DOI. Note that advance online publications do not have volume, issue, or page numbers. 


Hong, I., Knox, S., Pryor, L., Mroz, T. M., Graham, J., Shields, M. F., & Reistetter, T. A. (2020). Is referral to home health rehabilitation following inpatient rehabilitation facility associated with 90-day hospital readmission for adult patients with stroke? American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. Advance online publication.


Basic Format

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of the book: Subtitle of the book. Publisher Name. DOI or URL (if included)



Hollins, S. (2009). Religions, culture, and healthcare: A practical handbook for use in healthcare environments. Radcliffe.


*Note: APA 7 no longer requires a publisher location in a book reference.

Chapter in a Book

Sample book citation in the correct APA Style 7th Edition.


In edited books, where different authors contribute the chapters, you need to cite each chapter separately on your reference list. These individual references allow you to acknowledge the people who actually contributed the content.

Basic Format

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter: Subtitle of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book: Subtitle of book (# ed.,* pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher.


Haertl, K., & Christiansen, C. (2011). Coping skills. In C. Brown & V. C. Stoffel (Eds.), Occupational therapy in mental health: A vision for participation (pp. 313-329). F. A. Davis. 

Note: If you are using an authored book, meaning the entire book is written by the same person or people, cite the entire book (see the example in the previous section). 

*Include the edition number if there is more than one book edition available. 

Multiple Sources from the Same Author with the Same Publication Year

In the reference list, the entries are alphabetized by title to determine which is "a" and which is "b." The reference marked 2017a appears in the reference list before 2017b. The a and the b will also be in the reference list. For example,

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017a). Type 1 diabetes. Retrieved from


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017b). Type 2 diabetes. Retrieved from

Museum Items

Basic Format

Creator, A. A. (Year created). Title of work [Medium]. Museum Name, Museum’s Location City, State, Country.


*Note: if an exact year is unknown, but an estimated date is provided, include it in square brackets, preceded by ca. (circa).




Loof, C. I. D. [ca. 1905]. Carousel figure of a greyhound. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, United States.

Homer, W. (1885). The fog warning [Painting]. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, United States.